This Scriptural Calendar study focuses on different yearly cycles that have occurred through history.
Before the 8th century B.C., astronomers in many different cultures recorded a 360 day solar cycle, and a 30-day lunar cycle; so there was perfect synchronicity.
This matches up with Scripture, which declares a 360-day year.
And it lines up with the 360 degree circle, with each degree representing a day.
This study will show you how that changed to a 365-day cycle, which affected the way we observe the calendar to determine the Feast Days and Sabbaths.
Noah pointed to a 360 day calendar
During the time of the flood Noah tells us that a 150 days started on the seventeenth day of the second month, and ended on the seventeenth day of the seventh month (Genesis 7:11,24 and 8:3-4).
In the six hundredth year of Noaḥ’s life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, on that day all the fountains of the great deep were broken up, and the windows of the heavens were opened. Genesis 7:11
And the waters were mighty on the earth, one hundred and fifty days. Gen 7:24
And the waters receded steadily from the earth, and at the end of the hundred and fifty days the waters diminished. Genesis 8:3
And in the seventh month, the seventeenth day of the month, the ark rested on the mountains of Ararat. Genesis 8:4
150 days divided by 5 months = 30 days
30 days times 12 months = 360 days
The perfect, holy, Scriptural year is made up of 12 months, each comprising 30 days to make up a total of 360 days; the number of degrees in a circle.
Prophecy declares a 360-day calendar
Daniel, Paul and John all described the same thing, the antichrist Popes of Rome rising to power in 538 A.D., after the Roman Empire collapsed, and the last Roman Emperor was removed in 476 A.D.
The Little Horn of Daniel 7 who persecuted the saints for “a time and times and the dividing of time.” (360+720+180=1,260)
The period during which the holy city is trodden under foot by the Gentiles for “forty and two months” in Revelation 11. (42×30=1,260)
The period during which the Two Witnesses in Revelation 11 prophesy for “thousand two hundred and threescore days.”
Messiah’s saints escaping to the wilderness for “a time, and times, and half a time” in Revelation 12.
The reign of the antichrist sea beast for “forty and two months” in Revelation 13.
History unveils that these prophecies all point to the same 1,260 year time period of Great Tribulation, from 538-1798 A.D., during which the Popes of Rome were the reigning power in the world. This proves that Scripture was declaring a 360-day year.
Math, science proves a 360-day calendar
In it is simply brilliance, the 360 degrees of the circle point to 360 days.
Ideally the 12 months are laid out on a circle, each month representing 30 degrees, 30 days, to make up the 360 degrees and days.
So before the 8th century B.C., there was no need to add a 13th month to keep account for the imbalance of the 365.25 solar cycle and 29.5 day lunar cycle.
Ancient Astronomers validate a 360-day year before the 8th century B.C. and then they had to adjust their calendars to line up with the changes of the solar and lunar cycles.
Calendar research shows that 30 different cultures had the same calendar of 12 months with exactly 30 days per month and 360 days per year.
Dr. Immanuel Velikovsky in his book, Worlds in Collision, shows evidence that these 30 cultures worldwide all record a period of upheaval lasting about 50 years when the days of the month and days of the year were in flux before it settled down to what we have now–a year of ~365 1/4 days and a month of ~29 1/2 days.
The ancient Vedas of India showed a 360 day year in the Brahmanas and they record that the moon waxed for 15 days and waned for 15 days in a month. The Brahmanas also state that the sun moved north 180 days and moved south 180 days in a year. In a later period the Vedas record that the year was reformed to 365 1/4 days.
In ancient Persia, the calendar had 360 days; later, it was reformed to add 5 Gatha days to the year length.
The Sumerians had a 360 day year with months of 30 days, and the Babylonians adopted that Sumerian calendar.
At the beginning of the 7th century BC, Babylon added 5 days to the year length.
In ancient Assyria, the clay tablets from the royal library in Nineveh showed a 360 day year with 30 day months, and that the spring equinox always fell on Nisan 15.
In Ancient Egypt, the Canopus Decree and Ebers papyrus calendar had 30 day months and a 360 day year. The year change occurred in the 8th or 7th century BC according to Plutarch and the Book of Sothis, with 5 epagomena days added to the year length.
The Mayans of Mexico and Incas of Peru in Central and South America had a 360 day year calendar; later they added 5 1/4 days to the calendar.
Other cultures like China and Polynesia had 360 day calendars that they amended by adding 5 days to the year–China called their added 5 1/4 days, Khe-ying days.
The historically recorded time of the calendar change period was ~725 BC to 675 BC.
So what caused the change from 360 days per year, to 365 days?
Dr. Velikovsky put forth the theory that a near collision with a wandering planet sized object caused the earth to change its orbit slightly around the sun, changing the year length from 360 days to 365 1/4 days. The moon’s orbit around the earth was also changed slightly so that the regular 30 day orbit came to have a 29 1/2 day cycle.
Dale W. Wong in his 2006 book, The Ancient 360 Day Year: What It Was And How It Changed, laid out a simpler thesis than Velikovsky’s near collision scenario. Mr. Wong calculated the year when King Hezekiah in Judah was healed, and Elohim gave a sign by moving the sun back 10 degrees on the sundial.
“And Ḥizqiyahu (Hezekiah) said to Yeshayahu (Isaiah), “What is the sign that YHUH does heal me, and that I shall go up to the House of YHUH the third day?” And Yeshayahu said, “This is the sign for you from YHUH, that YHUH does the word which He has spoken: shall the shadow go forward ten degrees or go backward ten degrees?” 2 Kings 20:8-9
“And Ḥizqiyahu said, “It would be easy for the shadow to go down ten degrees; no, but let the shadow go backward ten degrees.” And Yeshayahu the prophet cried out to YHUH, and He brought the shadow ten degrees backward, by which it had gone down on the sundial of Aḥaz.” 2 Kings 20:10-11
Dale Wong calculated the year of Hezekiah’s sundial sign to be 713 BC; and he posits that Elohim actually moved the orbits of the earth and moon to accomplish this sign of moving 10 degrees/steps backward on the sundial. It’s an alternative to the catastrophe thesis of Dr. Velikovsky. Either way, the year change happened right around that time, plus or minus a few years.
Joshua pointed to a time that the sun stopped.
“Then Yehoshua (Joshua ) spoke to YHUH in the day when YHUH gave the Amorites over to the children of Yisra’ĕl, and he said before the eyes of Yisra’ĕl, “Sun, stand still over Giḇʽon; and moon, in the Valley of Ayalon.”
So the sun stood still, and the moon stopped, till the nation avenged itself upon their enemies. Is this not written in the Book of Yashar? Thus the sun stopped in the midst of the heavens, and did not hasten to go down for an entire day.
And there has been no day like that, before it or after it, that YHUH listened to the voice of a man, because YHUH fought for Yisra’ĕl.” Joshua 10:12-14
Habakkuk 3:11 points to the sun and moon standing still.
“Sun, moon shall stand still in their places. Like light Your arrows fly, Like lightning is Your glittering spear.”
Adam Clarke notes, This was at the prayer of Joshua, when he fought against the Amorites.
In lining up with the Scriptures in Isaiah 38:4-8 to change the shadow of the Sun by 10 degrees, the speed of the earth around the Sun was slowed down again, which resulted in our modern 365.2422 days per year, and the moons 29.5 days – possibly in the 8th century as reflected in the calendar changes around the world at this time.
“And the word of YHUH came to Yeshayahu, saying, “Go and say to Ḥizqiyahu, ‘Thus said YHUH, the Elohim of Dawiḏ your father, I have heard your prayer, I have seen your tears. See, I am adding fifteen years to your days. And out of the hand of the sovereign of Ashshur I shall deliver you and this city, and protect this city. And this is the sign to you from YHUH, that YHUH does this word which He has spoken: See, I am bringing the shadow on the sundial, which has gone down with the sun on the sundial of Aḥaz, ten degrees backward. And the sun returned ten degrees on the dial by which it had gone down.”
Adam Barnes notes, The shadow, or shade which is made by the interception of the rays of the sun by the gnomon on the dial. The phrase ‘bring again’ (Hebrew, משיב meshyb ) means to cause to return (Hiphil, from שוב shub, to return); that is, I will cause it retrograde, or bring back. Septuagint, Στρεψω Strepso – ‘I will turn back.’ Few subjects have perplexed commentators more than this account of the sun-dial of Ahaz.
The only other place where a sun-dial is mentioned in the Scriptures is in the parallel place in 2Ki 20:9-10, where the account is somewhat more full, and the nature of the miracle more fully represented: ‘This sign shalt thou have of the Lord, that the Lord will do the thing which he hath spoken: Shall the shadow go forward ten degrees, or go back ten degrees? And Hezekiah answered, It is a light thing for the shadow to go down ten degrees; nay, but let the shadow return backward ten degrees.’ That is, it would be in the usual direction which the shadow takes, for it to go down, and there would be less that would be decisive in the miracle. He therefore asked that it might be moved backward from its common direction, and then there could be no doubt that it was from Elohim; 2Ki 20:11 : ‘And Isaiah the prophet cried unto Yahweh, and he brought the shadow ten degrees backward, by which had gone down in the dial of Ahaz.’
Adam Clarke notes, Which is gone down “By which the sun is gone down” – For בשמש bashshemesh, the Septuagint, Syriac, and Chaldee read השמש , hashshemesh. – Houbigant.
In the history of this miracle in the book of Kings, (2 Kings 20:9-11), there is no mention at all made of the sun, but only of the going backward of the shadow: which might be effected by a supernatural refraction. The first οηλιος , the sun, in this verse is omitted in the Septuagint, MS. Pachom.
The Pulpit Commentary notes, The sun-dial of Ahaz. We are informed by Herodotus that the sun-dial was an invention of the Babylonians (Herod., 2:109), from whom it would readily pass to the Assyrians. Ahaz may have obtained a knowledge of it, or an actual specimen, when he visited Tiglath-Pileser at Damascus, [2 Kings 16:10] and, on his return to his capital, have caused one to be erected there. Sun-dials are of several kinds. The one here spoken of seems to have consisted of a set of steps, with a perpendicular gnomon or pole at the top, the shadow of which receded up the steps as the sun rose in the heavens, and descended down them as the sun declined.
We must suppose that the sign was given in the forenoon, when the shadow was gradually creeping up the steps. Hezekiah thought that a sudden jump in the same direction would be as nothing compared with a reversal of the motion, and therefore required that the shadow should go back, which it did. How the effect was produced, whether by an eclipse as argued by Mr. Bosanquet (‘Transactions of Society of Bibl. Archaeology,’ vol. 3. pp. 34-40), or by refraction, or by an actual alteration of the earth’s motion, we are not told; but there is reason to believe that the cause, whatever it was, was local, not general, since the King of Babylon subsequently sent ambassadors, to inquire concerning “the wonder that was done in the land”. [2Ch 32:31] The sun returned ten degrees. We must not press this expression as indicating a real alteration of the sun’s place in the heavens. The meaning is that the shadow cast by the sun re turned.
King Hezekiah lived from 739 BC – 687 BC
So it started in 702 B.C.
The narrative of Hezekiah’s sickness and miraculous recovery is found in 2 Kings 20:1, 2 Chronicles 32:24, Isaiah 38:1. Various ambassadors came to congratulate him on his recovery, among them from Merodach-baladan, the king of Babylon (2 Chronicles 32:23; 2 Kings 20:12).
In a full day we have 24 hours with each hour having 60 minutes. But in the hours of daylight, we have half this amount ~ 12 hours.
360 degree circle (on a sundial) divided by 12 hours of sunlight (average day) = 30 degrees per hour.
1/3rd of an hour (60 minutes) equals 20 minutes.
1/3rd of 30 degrees is 10 degrees
10 degrees would therefore equal 20 minutes.
So when the shadow moved backwards 10 degrees, this added an extra 20 minutes per day. So who long does that add to a year?
20 minutes per day x 360 days = 7200 extra minutes per year.
7200 extra minutes per year / 60 minutes in an hour = 120 hours per year.
120 extra hours per year / 24 hours in a day = 5 days per year.
So over a year around 5 extra days had been added to the original 360 day year which now results in a year with 365.2422 days. This is what I believe to have caused all these nations to change their calendar as they were following a solar year according the what was gown in the fields. This quickly caused all the calendars to be out so much so that cultures had no choice but to revise them.
The prophecy in Ezekiel 4 to lay on his side for 390 days, confirms the 13th month.
Per Albert Barnes, the time of Ezekiel was after the solar cycle change to 365 days, which would have required 13 months some years; though Scripture does not declare it specifically.
The year in which Ezekiel delivered his prophecies against Egypt corresponds with the first year of the reign of Pharaoh-Hophra, the Apries of Herodotus. The accession (589 b.c.) of this king to the Egyptian throne affected very materially the future of the kingdom of Judah.
Enoch’s calendar has 364 days.
Here’s the challenge with the book of Enoch. If it was written by Enoch, he lived way before 713 B.C. So him writing about a 364 yearly Sun cycle doesn’t fit, as many cultures including Israel, recorded a 360-day year. REFERENCES
If the solar cycle of his day was 364 days, it’s not anymore, so the calendar does not work today.
People who teach it say it’s a 360 day year, with 4 header days, but those aren’t observed. So that means that it is missing 5 days a year, with no way to compensate for them.
360 days without header days. MORE INFO???
Parts or all of the book of Enoch may not be valid, as I see no reason that original creation would have 364 days; or that the Sun and moon would be out of sync. Plus, I find no Scripture that declares the Sun’s cycle was altered before the flood.