This Scriptural Calendar study shows how to determine the Day of Pentecost.
The wording of the command in Leviticus 23:15-16 causes some confusion.
And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the sabbath, from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the wave offering; seven sabbaths shall be complete: Even unto the morrow after the seventh sabbath shall ye number fifty days; and ye shall offer a new meat offering unto the LORD.
Some people proclaim that we are to observe seven Sabbaths, and the next day is the 50th day. That seems to work if you observe the Sabbath on Saturday, as seven weeks is 49 days.
But it does not work on the lunisolar Sabbath calendar, as counting out seven Sabbaths does not add up to 49 or 50 days.
Seven weeks with seven Sabbaths is 49 days.
The first month can have 29-30 days, so there are 1-2 extra days.
The second month New Moon Day is not counted in the weekly Sabbath count.
The second month can have 29-30 days, so there are 1-2 extra days.
The third month New Moon Day is not counted in the weekly Sabbath count.
So at a minimum, that adds up to 53 days; and may add up to 55 days.
The other challenge is that 50 days doesn’t place the harvest in the right season, so it doesn’t make sense from an agricultural viewpoint. Scripture about the harvests point to the summer.
A straightforward reading of the text tells us to count out seven lunisolar Sabbaths and then count fifty more days.
On the Feast of First Fruits, the day after the Feast of Unleavened Bread, we are to start counting seven Sabbaths.
In the latter part of the 1st month, we count two more Sabbaths on the 22nd and 29th.
In the 2nd month, we count four Sabbaths on the 8th, 15th, 22nd, and 29th.
And in the 3rd month, we count one Sabbath on the 8th.
This brings us to the 9th day of the 3rd month when we start counting fifty days.
In the 3rd month, there may be 21-22 days left in the month. (21.5 average)
In the 4th month, there may be 29-30 days. (29.5 average)
Here’s how the count plays out, depending on how many days are in the 3rd month.
If the 3rd month has 29 days, then there are 21 days to count in the 3rd month. Then we count out 29 days in the 4th month, which lands on the fourth Sabbath.
If the 3rd month has 30 days, then there are 22 days to count in the 3rd month. Then we count out 28 days in the 4th month, which lands on the day before the fourth Sabbath of the month.
The day of Pentecost occurring in the latter part of the 4th month places it in the summer when the harvest is coming in.
Notice that when the Spirit was poured out on the day of Pentecost, and the Jewish leaders thought they were drunk, they said that the men were full of new wine. Acts 2:13. New wine isn’t available in the 3rd month, but it is in the latter part of the 5th month.
Next, let’s focus on how to observe the spring feasts of Pentecost, Unleavened Bread and First Fruits.