This Scriptural Calendar study shows how to determine the start of the lunisolar month and year.
The three Holy Feast Days that occur in the first Biblical month are known as the Spring feast days, as they align with the spring equinox.
Six months later, the Holy Feast Days of the seventh month occur in the fall.
On the chart below you can see how the Biblical months and Holy Feast Days line up with the seasons. The Gregorian months are listed in the middle circle.
The Feast Days of Passover, Unleavened Bread and First Fruits, are in Spring.
The Feast Days of Trumpets, Atonement and Tabernacles are in Fall.
What phase of the moon determines the start of the month on New Moon Day?
The three teachings in regard to the lunisolar calendar are the crescent moon, the full moon and the dark conjunction (when there is no sunlight hitting the moon).
Keep in mind that a waxing moon is increasing in the amount of sunlight hitting it,
and a waning moon is decreasing in the amount of sunlight hitting it.
Many people believe that the new month starts when Jewish rabbis spot the crescent moon in Jerusalem.
But by the time they can spot the crescent moon sliver, it’s at 3-4% illumination, which is not new.
Since they would spot the crescent moon 2-3 days days after the dark conjunction, their determined High Sabbath feast days of Unleavened Bread and Tabernacles would not feature a full moon; which you will see that Scriptures proves.
Also, spotting the crescent moon from Israel does not enable people around the world to know when the New Moon occurs.
It is not an exact point in time, meaning the crescent moon may be 3-4% in illumination by the time they spot it; and weather can prevent them from seeing it.
Others teach that the New Moon Day starts with the full moon.
But a full moon is not new, as it is fully illuminated, and will wane in illumination.
The High Sabbath feast days of Unleavened Bread and Tabernacles would feature a dark moon, which goes against Scripture.
The dark conjunction is the only phase of the moon which makes sense.
The dark moon only lasts for a short period of time, until the rays of the Sun start to hit it again, renewing the cycle of it waxing, building up, unto a full moon.
The dark conjunction occurs at an exact time. Astronomers refer to the dark conjunction as the New Moon, as you can see on dateandtime.com
It results in the full moon shining above on the 14th/15th day of the Biblical month, which highlights the High Sabbaths of Unleavened Bread and Tabernacles.
And it results in the half-moon phases falling on the 8th day and 22nd day Sabbaths.
People around the world can see the half-moons and full moon, to know where they are at on the Scriptural lunisolar calendar.
In 2016, that Biblical new year started on 3/09/16, the day after the dark conjunction, which happened on 03/08/16.
It’s clear what defines a ‘New Moon’, the dark conjunction when there is no light on the moon, and it starts to wax towards a full moon.
The Israelites left Egypt in the evening under a full moon, which allowed them to see the way.
more examples of dark moon on first, or full moon on 15th?
How to determine the start of the New Year.
Because the annual lunar cycle is 354 days and the solar cycle is 365 days, there is a difference of 11 days.
This causes the lunar cycle to fall behind the solar cycle, so a 13th month occurs every 7 of 19 years, to keep the feasts of the 1st Biblical month in the proper time frame, in Spring.
After 3 years the lunar cycle have falls behind by approximately 33 days, and a 13th month synchronizes the lunar and solar cycles.
To determine this one simply has to look ahead to see when the next full moon occurs:
If the next full moon occurs after the spring equinox (3/21 of the Gregorian calendar), then the next Biblical month is the 1st month of the New Year.
If the next full moon occurs before the spring equinox, then it is the 13th month of the same year.
Seven such “leap months” or embolismal months are inserted into the Biblical calendar every 19 years. This is a predictable cycle.
This 19 year metonic cycle was discovered by the Greek astronomer and scholar Meton of Athens in the 5th century B.C.
A few decades later the Metonic Cycle was incorporated into the Hebrew lunar calendar by the great Jewish scholar Rabbi Hillel II back in the 360 B.C.
If you’re thinking that a 13th month is not defined in Scripture, you’re right.
When the commands were written the moon had a 30-day monthly cycle resulting in a 360-day annual cycle, and the Sun had an annual 360-day cycle; so there was no need for the 13th month.
Read this study to see what changed 364 Day, 360 Day, 365 Day CalendarsLINK.
13th month https://www.worldslastchance.com/the-thirteenth-month-in-ezekiel.html
The Hebrew word chodesh points to both the new moon and the new month.
The Hebrew word for ‘moon’ is chodesh, which means the new moon; Numbers 29:6; 1 Samuel 20:5, 1 Samuel 20:18, 1 Samuel 20:24
but it also means a month; that is, a lunar month, beginning at the new moon, Genesis 8:5; Exodus 13:4; et al
New Moon Day Observance
In my research on the Biblical Calendar, I found that historically, Israel fasted on new moon days.
Says Hutton Webster, “the establishment of a periodic week ending in a Sabbath observed every seventh day was doubtless responsible for the gradual obsolescence of the new moon festival as a period of general abstinence , since with continuous weeks the new – moon day and the Sabbath Day would from time to time coincide” ( Rest Days ., p. 255).
“Each new moon was celebrated with a fast” (Jewish Family Celebrations, p. 35).
And we also find the following: “the sacred festival of the new moon, which the people give notice of with trumpets, and the day of fasting , on which abstinence from all meats and drinks is enjoined . . .” ( Philo, Book 26, XXX, 159 ).
I find it interesting that science has shown that fasting once a month is great for your health.